Muzaffarpur is northeastern Indian city and known as financial capital of Bihar. Muzaffarpur is also famous for one more thing and most of the people knows that, Muzaffarpur has been identified as a litchi zone in the country and in the whole world. The land and climate of Muzaffarpur and its adjoining area is considered very suitable for lychees. This is the reason that today Bihar has a monopoly on 90 percent of the production of litchi in the whole of India and despite of that 90 percent 80 percent litchi produce in Muzaffarpur only. Apart from Muzaffarpur in Bihar, litchi is cultivated in Champaran, Sitamarhi, Samastitpur, Vaishali and Bhagalpur.
In these areas Lichi Farming takes place
In all over the world in a small or large scale lichi is produced. In India addition to Bihar, litchi is also produced in Malda of West Bengal, Dehradun of Uttarakhand and in some parts of Saharanpur and Punjab. Studies have shown that lychee or lichi was first cultivated in South China in the first century. Over the years, its area expanded and today, beyond North India, it has expanded to Thailand, Bangladesh, South Africa and Florida. In the last two decades litchi cultivation has also started in Pakistan, South Taiwan, North Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines and South Africa.
Unfortunately Lichi / Lychee yield is in loss
According to information received from the Department of Agriculture Bihar, in the 70s, about 1,330 hectares of land in Muzaffarpur was planted with litchi. Which has increased to 12,667 hectares today. Experts says that in the 70s, about 5,320 metric tons of litchi was produced annually. At the same time, it has increased to one lakh 50 thousand metric tons in the current decade. Despite this, the litchi-producing farmer is in constant loss. It is said that the export of litchi from Muzaffarpur to foreign countries started in the 90s. In this order, litchi was sent to neighboring country Nepal including England, Netherlands, France, Spain, Dubai and many other Gulf countries. However, in recent years it has decreased due to certain reasons and now the lychee of Muzaffarpur (Lichi of Muzaffarpur) has been confined to Nepal and Bangladesh only in the name of foreign countries.
Industries based on Lichi / Lychee
If we talk about North Bihar, the production of litchi has increased by one and a half times in the last three decades. There are many varieties of litchi. In Muzaffarpur alone, litchi variety Rose Cented, Shahi, China and Bedana are available. Lychee gardening is very beneficial from a commercial point of view. Experts says that the farmer can gets a net profit of more than twenty thousand rupees per hectare in one season. But, this does not happen due to natural disaster. Second is that there is no litchi-based industry in Bihar, because of that the litchi-producing farmers here are facing economic crisis. No effective system of storage and transportation of litchi is available in Muzaffarpur area, which accounts for about 90 per cent of the production of litchi in Bihar. Litchi-producing farmers are being discouraged by the government’s callousness. Neeraj Kumar, a litchi farmer from Muzaffarpur, tells that if the government starts making juice from litchi, then the farmers will start benefiting from it. Similarly, if you arrange for cold store for litchi and AC coach for transportation of litchi, then income can be doubled.
Lychee / Lichi contains nutritious elements
Litchi cultivation is not just a source of income. Rather, it is also called a blessed fruit for our health. Lychee is considered as many source of nutritional elements. It is rich in vitamin C, potassium and natural sugar. Also, the amount of water in it is also sufficient. It is helpful in keeping the ratio of water in the body balanced by eating in summer. It is said that eating only ten litchi gives about 6.5 calories of energy. In addition, minerals like calcium, phosphorus and magnesium are found in litchi. It is considered essential for the development of bones of our body. The major nutrient in lychee is carbohydrate. An analysis of ripe legumes of litchi has found that on average it contains 15.3 percent sugar, 1.15 percent protein and 16 percent acid. The fruit of litchi is a good source of phosphorus, calcium, iron, mineral salts and vitamin ‘C’. The amount of water in litchi is very high. One fruit contains 77.30 percent pulp and 30.94 percent water available in that pulp. Litchi is rich in Vitamin C, which strengthens our skin and our body’s immune system. Not only this, eating of lichi also help in blood problems. Research has shown that lychee has the characteristic of preventing breast cancer. Litchi contains dietary fiber, which strengthens our digestive system. Lychees are also a type of anti-oxidant, which prevents our body from getting sick. Eating litchi keeps the blood pressure of the body stable. Lychee strengthens the heartbeat.
Litchi belongs to the Sapindaceae family
In botany, litchi has been described as an important member of the sapindaceae family. Its scientific name is chinensis. It is believed to have originated from China. Experts say that the cultivation of litchi first started in South China, around the first century. It first started production on Luchu Island in China. It is believed that this fruit must have been named Litchi from Luchu. Its tree height is 4 to 12 meters. The foliage begins to grow on the tree in February and the grain begins to form in March. By the way, the eatable lichi is available from May 15. Lichi is found in the warm ligaments. In China, it is used as sharbat (syrup), fruit salad and ice cream. In China it is also included with non-vegetarian dishes. Lychee has an important place in Chinese culture. In China, it is considered as a symbol of close family relations.
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