What is Malaria? Their Systematic Position. Types of Malaria. Life-Cycle, symptoms and control methods.
Malaria is a harmful disease of human beings. It is caused by Plasmodium and transmitted through the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito. In this disease primary host is a man and the secondary or intermediate host is a mosquito.
There are four species of Plasmodium. Which causes different types of Malaria.
Phylum – Protozoa
Sub Phylum – Sporozoa
Class – Telospora
Order – Eucoccida
Family – Plasmodiidae
Genus – Plasmodium
Species – Vivax, Ovale, Malariae, Falciparum
These are mainly Four types and caused by different species of Plasmodium.
The above four types are main but in some cases, one another type also occurs. Which is called Quotidian Malaria.
The Life Cycle of Plasmodium is completed in two hosts. The primary or definite host is a man and the intermediate or secondary host is a mosquito.
The parasite is introduced into the human bloodstream through the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. The parasite bites the human for sucking blood. The parasite entering the blood is first carried to the liver, where it multiplies by pre-erythrocytic schizogony and after a few cycles appear in the blood.
Plasmodium attacks on the RBC. The parasite’s feed lives and multiplies inside them. After the completion of each cycle, these release toxic substance hemozoin. It causes shivering and high fever.
Malaria is identified by the periodic attacks of high fever. The death of man is not actually directly due to the parasite but the parasite makes the patient weak causing anemia ultimately resulting in death.
Some population groups are at considerably higher risk of contracting malaria and developing severe disease, than others. These include infants, children under 5 years of age, pregnant women, and patients with HIV/ AIDS, as well as non-immune migrants, mobile population, and travelers. National malaria control programs need to take special measures to protect these population groups from this infection, taking into consideration their specific circumstances.
This post was published on March 1, 2022 18:26
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